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By Patricia H. Marks

The overthrow of Viceroy Joaqu?­?­n de l. a. Pezuela on 29 January 1821 has now not acquired a lot consciousness from historians, who've tended to view it as an easy army rebellion. but during this cautious examine of the episode, according to deep archival examine, Patricia Marks finds it to be a pivotal occasion within the rising advertisement clash among liberal free-traders and protectionists that retarded the institution of a good nationwide kingdom in post-independence Peru. The overthrow of the viceroy thereby could be noticeable as an early manifestation of Latin American praetorianism, during which a specific zone of the civilian inhabitants, not able to be triumphant politically and unwilling to compromise, pressures military officials to behave so one can retailer the nation.

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Razón de los señores ministros y subalternos, in Consulado to Amandarro, 26 May 1803, agnp-Hacienda colonial, leg. 1115. 53. Razón de los individuos del comercio de Lima, 1811, agi-Lima, leg. 1551; Prorrata de los 400,000 pesos, 1819, agnp-Consulado, leg. 34; Cuentos del cupo de los 150,000 pesos, 1821, cdipTomo 21, 1:379–431, 433–39, 441–46. 54. For the sake of simplicity, matrícula will be used to refer to all of the lists described above. Marks FM-Chap 4 8/22/07 10:56 AM Page 31 city of kings, city of commerce 31 identify those involved in the Atlantic trade.

He confiscated more than 70,000 pesos in gold on board. . ”37 More than a half-century later, the Cruzetas apparently saw no reason not to participate in a lucrative trade that defied the colonial rules for the regulation of trade. Examples of bureaucrats who were also merchants could be multiplied endlessly, and included the judges of the Audiencia of Lima,38 but perhaps one more instance will suffice. 39 Less powerful bureaucrats were sometimes less fortunate. 36. El contador general de Indias .

José Baquíjano y Carrillo, “Disertación histórica y política sobre el comercio del Perú,” Mercurio Peruano, edición facsimilar, 12 vols. (Lima: Biblioteca Nacional del Perú, 1964), 1:209–16, 221–26, 229–35, 237–42, 245–52, 253–56, 265–68, 273–75, 282–89; Relación de los méritos y servicios del Dr. D. José Baquíjano y Carrillo, Madrid, 4 Dec. 1793, agi-Lima, leg. 1548; Burkholder, Politics of a Colonial Career, 16–17. The Mercurio Peruano, a periodical published by the Sociedad Amigos del País, carried articles focusing on Peruvian history, politics, and economics.

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