Download Culture and Basic Psychological Processes by Kitayama PDF

By Kitayama

Oyserman, Coon, and Kenmielmeier (in press) offer a so much finished evaluate of empirical reviews that use attitudinal surveys to seize cultural diversifications in individualism and collectivism. This paper means that the cross-cultural validity of attitudinal surveys can not be taken with no consideration. in addition, the meta-theory underlying this literature (called the entity view of tradition) is termed into query. the writer offers another meta-theory (called the approach view of tradition) and discusses its implications for destiny paintings in cultural and cross-cultural psychology.

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47 Caelius Aurelianus, On Chronic Diseases 5, 141. 49 Most of these conditions were, it seems, generally agreed to be of physical origin and treatable primarily by means of physical therapy, even though “psychotherapeutic” measures could sometimes be taken to alleviate the symptoms. There was, however, some debate on the relation between the physical and the mental aspects of certain medical conditions, even though little is known of this debate and of the arguments advanced. Caelius Aurelianus hints at this debate on a number of occasions.

Are words familiar from the modern medical vocabulary, but in ancient times their meaning was less definite than it is now, and they could denote simply “madness”—as indicated above, rabies was used of non-human animals infected by the disease, but not of humans. , ghosts) suggest the supposed supernatural origin of madness. Lunaticus (“moonstruck”) refers to epilepsy, like the Greek selēnoblētos. Latin phrases for mental illness include mente captus (“out of one’s mind”) and alienatio mentis (also alienare), whereas mental health could be expressed by phrases such as integer/compos mentis/animi, or simply by the adjective sanus.

28 29 22 2 Medical and Cultural Background the brain in the disorder. Even though the brain was not always primarily affected in melancholy, as melancholy could also be an affliction of the diaphragm (the so-called “hypochondriac” melancholy), the mental symptoms always originated there. Rufus, on the other hand, was more cautious in assessing the brain’s role in cognition and mental illness. For both Rufus and Galen, the cardinal symptoms and primary diagnostic criteria of melancholy were fear and depression, but they also discussed various delusional states, strange beliefs and obsessive ideas caused by the illness.

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