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By Charles Issawi

Charles Issawi's selection of essays, Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts, has been written within the trust examine of the prior encounters and conflicts among the world's significant cultures can make clear their nature and significance. although the emphasis is at the heart East, of which Issawi is one in all our superior students, the topics coated right here variety in scope from the good historic civilizations to Shelley's ardour for the center East, from the disasters of the Greeks as empire developers to the preeminence of English as a world language this day. different essays study both the way yes cultures have been shaped, or the results of the direct keep an eye on of 1 tradition over one other, or cross-cultural perceptions, such a lot significantly the dramatic swap within the Western conception of the Orient among the eighteenth and 19th centuries.

In this age of multiculturalism, conflicts among the world's cultures became a dominant characteristic of the overseas panorama. this wonderful assortment is a much-needed exploration in their historic nature.

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Rome had an aristocratic government, which gradually broadened to democracy before reverting to autocratic rule under Julius Caesar and Augustus. Britain, in its imperial period, was a constitutional monarchy, with power gradually extending from the aristocracy to the middle class. But in no case does the form of government of the metropolis make a significant difference in the process or mode of the transmission and imprinting of the culture. Two factors explain the present configuration of the world's large culture areas.

CULTURE IMPRINTERS Culture imprinters are those peoples who have stamped several elements of both their high and their popular cultures on a large number of persons inhabiting a big area. Among these elements are language, religion, laws, architecture, cuisine, some institutions and ways of life, and certain types of folk music and art. In contrast to the section on culture makers, where culture referred only to high culture, here we are dealing with the culture of masses. Most empires, including some of the largest and some of the longest lived, failed to leave a lasting imprint of their culture over a large area.

Its aims are essentially economic: to open new sources of raw materials and secure outlets for finished goods and capital. It seeks to impose not culture but institutions that facilitate political control and economic exchange. Its main contributions have been in the realm of technology, science, and institutions, not language and religion. Its influ- 34 Cross-Cultural Encounters and Conflicts ence in these fields is likely to outlast its political control. Moreover, it may be maintained, a new world civilization is being slowly formed; the main characteristics of this new civilization are based on science, technology, and capitalism (or socialism), and its "classical" language is American English.

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