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By Morrison H. Heckscher

Книга издана The Metropolitan Museum of artwork к 150-тилетнему юбилею Центрального парка в Нью-Йорке

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Other needed balances are between local and regional focus, such as suburban versus central city development, as well as between the needs of the residents and those of commuters, which often represent a substantial element of the daily population of the megacity (in Megacity Dynamics 31 Cairo, for example, there are 2 million commuters versus 11 million inhabitants [Rodenbeck, 1999]). Finally, policies need to establish an appropriate balance between free market activities and interventions, a balance difficult to attain because of its impacts on social stability.

Add all of these elements to the fact that housing in Mumbai is scarce and expensive. In 1976, the Government passed the Urban Land Act which was supposed to enlarge the area on which middle and lower class housing was to be built, however the act has been used, once again in the elitist fashion, to build more upper class housing and to keep hold of wealthy neighborhoods which has only worsened the slum problem. Before 1950 slums were predominantly found around the mills, on the western part of the island, predominantly in an area called Byculla.

They never underwent any planning, infrastructure construction or implementation of facilities such as water, sewage and drainage. This has led to many problems with Mumbai’s poor population. Slums have risen dramatically since 1950. Megacities-Mumbai 53 Most of this is due to the fact that Mumbai’s size tripled since India’s independence in 1947. The island of Bombay is about 20 kilometres long, and Greater Mumbai, including Salsette Island, occupies an area of 620 square kilometres and it has a density of nearly 27,000 people per square kilometre, extremely dense.

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