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By Athanasios G. Mamalis

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Sample text

The ultimate longitudinal and transverse tensile strengths, Xt and Yt, respectively, are obtained from the knowledge of load at fracture in the two tests. The Poisson ratio, n12, is obtained from the strains parallel and perpendicular to the load, measured at the same axial load. 2 Uniaxial Compression Test Static uniaxial compression tests are similar to the tension ones, but they are more problematic. The biggest problem is the necessity to prevent geometric buckling of the specimens. This requirement is particularly relevant to thin, flat specimens and is usually met by providing multiple side supports that prevent the specimen from buckling out of its plane.

Structural optimisation: Through the total load carrying capacity of the structure (Stage 3), the strength and energy absorption capability of each structural component are also evaluated. This information allows for the designer to re-design incompatible components. Criteria are imposed for evaluating the ability of the component to transfer the loads exerted throughout the impacted structure and to simultaneously absorb a significant amount of the dissipated energy, whilst high local deformations must be avoided.

The effect of specimen geometry on the energy absorption capability was investigated by varying the cross-sectional dimensions, wall thickness and length of the shell. The effect of the type of composite material, laminate design, loading method and strain-rate on the crashworthy behaviour of the components was also studied. Environmental effects related to crash characteristics of composites have been also investigated. e. static and dynamic axial loading and bending, is considered. The loading and deformation characteristics of the collapsed shells are obtained experimentally and theoretically by modelling the crumpling and bending process; the influence of the shell geometry and the material properties on these characteristics, in relation to the behaviour of the shells as energy absorbing devices, is examined.

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