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By Line Mikkelsen

This booklet is worried with a category of copular clauses often called specificational clauses, and its relation to other forms of copular constructions, predicational and equative clauses specifically. according to facts from Danish and English, I argue that specificational clauses contain an identical middle predication constitution as predicational clauses ― one that combines a referential and a predicative expression to shape a minimum predicational unit ― yet range in how the predicational middle is discovered syntactically. Predicational copular clauses characterize the canonical awareness, the place the referential expression is aligned with the main sought after syntactic place, the topic place. Specificational clauses contain an strange alignment of the predicative expression with topic place. I recommend that this strange alignment is grounded in details constitution: the alignment of the fewer referential DP with the topic place serves a discourse connective functionality through letting fabric that's fairly well-known within the discourse look sooner than fabric that's quite unusual within the discourse. Equative clauses are argued to be essentially assorted.

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Holmes proved that . . ‘Holmes proved that . . ’ a. den bedste spiller p˚a holdet the best b. den bedste spiller p˚a holdet the best er Minna ikke. player on team-DEF is Minna not ikke er Minna. , the predicate complement has been topicalized). 91b) indicates that this is a specificational structure, which we have seen does not involve topicalization. 91a) is bad under any placement of the finite verb. Adjunct clauses Adjunct clauses do not allow topicalization either, and we thus expect predicate topicalization structures to be impossible in adjunct clauses and specificational ones to be possible (other things being equal).

1). 1) IP ✏✏€€€ € ✏✏ € ✏ DP I ✏€€ € ✏✏ ✏ € ✟❍ ❍❍ ✟✟ den . . holdet VP I erk ✧❜ ✧ ❜ ✧ ❜ ikke VP ✧❜ ❜ ❜ ✧ ✧ tk Minna This means that none of the evidence discussed in the previous chapter will distinguish between them, and that all three are live candidates for the analysis of specificational clauses. At the end of this chapter, I suggest that they can be distinguished on semantic grounds, specifically by the semantic type they assume for the subject DP. 2), is an adjunction structure, as in Stowell (1983) and Heggie (1988a), or projected by a functional head, as in Bowers (1993).

Equatives and predicational clauses both have referential (type e ) subjects, but differ in the type of their predicate complement. I argue (in part III of the book) that the non-referentiality of specificational subjects is key to understanding the tight discourse conditions on the use of specificational clauses. Third, it indicates that predicational and specificational clauses, but not equatives, can be composed with a semantically inert copula. 2 In equatives, however, the subject and predicate complement are both referential and therefore cannot combine directly.

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