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By Line Mikkelsen

This booklet is anxious with a category of copular clauses referred to as specificational clauses, and its relation to other forms of copular constructions, predicational and equative clauses specifically. in line with facts from Danish and English, I argue that specificational clauses contain an analogous center predication constitution as predicational clauses ― one that combines a referential and a predicative expression to shape a minimum predicational unit ― yet vary in how the predicational center is discovered syntactically. Predicational copular clauses symbolize the canonical attention, the place the referential expression is aligned with the main well known syntactic place, the topic place. Specificational clauses contain an strange alignment of the predicative expression with topic place. I recommend that this strange alignment is grounded in details constitution: the alignment of the fewer referential DP with the topic place serves a discourse connective functionality by way of letting fabric that's rather universal within the discourse seem ahead of fabric that's fairly unexpected within the discourse. Equative clauses are argued to be essentially diverse.

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2 In equatives, however, the subject and predicate complement are both referential and therefore cannot combine directly. Here the copula must provide the semantic glue (see Geist 2003 for a specific proposal). 3) C LAUSE TYPE Truncated cleft Dem. equative E XAMPLES That is Susan. That woman is Susan. 4). 2) is slightly incongruous. 4). 4) COPULAR CLAUSES C LAUSE TYPE Predicational Specificational (including truncated clefts) Identity (including demonstrative equatives) S UBJECT e e,t e C OMPLEMENT e,t e e This is essentially my proposal.

5) IP ✦❛❛ ❛ ✦✦ DP1 I ✦❛❛ ❛ ✦✦ ✚✚❩❩ the teacher I is FP ✚❩ ✚ ❩ t1 John The small clause is symmetric in the sense that the two elements are of the same syntactic category and of the same semantic type (in this example type e ). The equative semantics is located not in the copula, but in the null functional head of the small clause. 1)). The initial DP is in subject position, and the final DP is inside the VP. This means that none of the syntactic facts reviewed above (placement of 2 H&K are not explicit about the internal structure of FP, nor about the details of the larger syntactic structure of specificational clauses.

75) player player is not Minna Predicate topicalization structure: [CP [DP den højeste spiller]i erj [IP Minnak tj [VP ikke [VP tj tk ti ]]]] the tallest player is Minna not Pronominal form The second argument for distinguishing specificational clauses from predicate topicalization structures came from the form of personal pronouns: if we replace the name Minna with a pronoun, it has to appear in the nominative form hun (“she”) in a predicate topicalization structure, but in the accusative form hende (“her”) in a specificational structure.

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