By J. Miller, K. Brown
Complementing Brown & Miller's contemporary Concise Encyclopedia of Syntactic Theories (1996), to which it is a spouse quantity, this encyclopedia is a suite of articles drawn from the hugely profitable Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. It provides a set of seventy nine articles, all of which were revised and up to date. It additionally offers a couple of newly commissioned articles, one among which has been considerably up-to-date and prolonged. the amount is alphabetically organised and comprises an advent and a word list. The Concise Encyclopedia of Grammatical Categories will offer a uniquely finished and authoritative review of the construction blocks of syntax: observe sessions, sentence/clause forms, practical different types of the noun and verb, anaphora and pronominalisation, transitivity, topicalisation and paintings order.
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Extra resources for Concise Encyclopedia of Grammatical Categories
Controllers Typical controllers present little difficulty of identification, yet there are numerous problems with the less straightforward cases. 1 Controller Possibilities The discussion of categories suggests that the features involved in agreement are associated originally or primarily with nouns; traditionally nouns and pronouns are considered the normal agreement controllers. However, in subject-verb agreement, and indeed any agreement extending beyond the noun phrase, it appears that it is the noun phrase rather than the noun which is the controller.
The Nature of Agreement There are two problems which have dominated attempts to give a satisfying account of agreement: the question of directionality and the nature of the link between controller and target. 7 Directionality As illustrated in the discussion of categories (Sect. 1), there is a clear intuition that agreement is in a 15 Agreement sense directional. Consider this Russian example (17): (17) Irina citala Irina was reading. The noun Irina is feminine because it denotes a female. The verb shows feminine agreement (-a) because its subject is feminine—the reading is not feminine.
Personal pronouns agree with their antecedents (though some would exclude them from agreement, as discussed earlier), as do relative pronouns. Surprisingly, perhaps, the list continues. Adverbs can show agreement (in Lak and in Kala Lagaw Ya, for example), as can adpositions (Abkhaz), and there is even evidence (from West Flemish) that complementizers can agree. The possessed noun may show agreement with the possessor (again found in Abkhaz), and, more rarely, the possessor may agree with the possessed (as in Chamalal).