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By Leslie Bethell

Colonial Brazil is a range of chapters from the Cambridge historical past of Latin the United States volumes 1 and a couple of introduced jointly to supply a continous background of the Portuguese Empire in Brazil from the start of the 16th to the start of the 19th centuries. The chapters conceal early Portuguese cost, political and fiscal buildings, plantations and slavery, the gold rushes, the impression of colonial rule on Indian societies, imperial reorganization within the eighteenth century, and demographic and fiscal switch throughout the ultimate many years of the empire.

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How had these varying fortunes come about? 18 Whilst, strictly speaking, the word engenho referred only to the mill for grinding the sugar cane, the term came to be applied to the whole economic unit: the mill itself, the associated buildings, the cane fields, pastures, slave quarters, estate house, etc. The term 'plantation' was never used by the Portuguese or Spaniards of this period. The settlement of Brazil, i;00-80 31 Table 1 Colonial Brazil: White Population and Engenhos, IJ/O and c. 9%) c.

His colony was thenceforth administered by royal agents. After his death in 1556, it passed to his son Fernao, and then to his daughter, Leonor. She was granted a royal licence to sell it to the first duke of Aveiro who already had a sugar mill there; he converted it into an entail for the second sons of his house. In the process of further developing the sugar industry, however, Aveiro's agents exterminated or drove out most of the native Tupi, thus exposing the area to the incursions of the far more fearsome Tapuia Aimores.

Moreover, from 1623 onwards, an additional afternoon each week was devoted solely to colonial affairs. From 1604 the newly created Conselho da India was invested with powers for all overseas affairs, apart from matters concerning Madeira, the Azores and the strongholds of Morocco. Colonial officials were appointed and their despatches handled by it. However, it was the Conselho da Fazenda which dealt with naval expeditions, the buying and selling of pepper and the collection of the royal revenues, in fact with all economic business.

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