By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard
This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics in regards to the research of annoying and element (TA) markers in numerous languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal global and the authentic global” (Declerck). All contributions, additionally, take on those difficulties from a kind of cognitive viewpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to offer a unifying reason for all utilization varieties, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the basis that the semantics of TA different types basically refers to subjective, instead of target, issues. the quantity additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to collect debts of TA marking (in a variety of languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. eventually, this quantity goals to give a contribution to developing an knowledge that modal which means parts are without delay correct to the research of the grammar of time.
Read or Download Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality (Human Cognitive Processing) PDF
Best grammar books
A entire advisor to the character of language and an creation to linguistic research. this can be a fresh variation of «An creation to the character and capabilities of Language», the bestselling English Language textbook. With finished assurance of the character of language and linguistic research, this e-book is ideal for these learning language for the 1st time.
A useful consultant to the area of excellent grammar which breaks down the limitations that hinder such a lot of articulate, clever humans from speaking successfully. selecting up a e-book on grammar takes braveness, however the learner can take center from the truth that the various nice writers, together with Charlotte Bronte, have been hopeless at grammar in school.
- A Reference Grammar of Romanian: Volume 1: The Noun Phrase
- On Nature and Language
- Prepositions (Front Line English Grammar Series)
- The Architecture of Determiners
Extra resources for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality (Human Cognitive Processing)
5. Epistemic modality a. We speak of epistemic modality when the degree of compatibility (or overlap) between the modal world and the factual world is at stake. Epistemic utterances express the speaker’s evaluation of the relation between the modal world in which the residue situation actualizes and the factual world. Thus, Bill may be stuck in a traffic jam expresses that the situation of Bill being stuck in a traffic jam is possibly actualizing in the factual world. 4. Envisage actually refers to something weaker than prediction.
Another distinction we can make is that between ‘narrow t-worlds’ and ‘extended t-worlds’. A narrow t-world is a t-world comprising all the situations that are actualizing at a given time t. Tensed propositions can only be true of such a world if the tense represents the (actualization of the) situation referred to as simultaneous with t. An extended t-world is a world comprising all the situations that are actualizing at t or have actualized before t. Various tenses can be used to represent the actualization of a situation as factual in an extended t-world.
Pullum. 2002. The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Jespersen, Otto. 1931. A Modern English Grammar on Historical Principles. Part 4: Syntax (3rd volume): Time and Tense. London: Allen & Unwin/Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard. Kiparsky, Paul & Carol Kiparsky. 1970. Fact. In Progress in Linguistics, M. Bierwisch & K. E. ), 143–173. The Hague: Mouton. Leech, Geoffrey. 2006. A Glossary of English Grammar. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Lyons, John.