By Adeline Patard, Frank Brisard
This quantity addresses difficulties of semantics in regards to the research of annoying and element (TA) markers in quite a few languages, together with Arabic, Croatian, English, French, German, Russian, Thai, and Turkish. Its major curiosity is going out to epistemic makes use of of such markers, wherein epistemic modality is known as indicating “a measure of compatibility among the modal international and the actual global” (Declerck). All contributions, additionally, take on those difficulties from a kind of cognitive viewpoint, with a few of them insisting at the have to offer a unifying reason for all utilization forms, temporal and non-temporal, and them all accepting the basis that the semantics of TA different types basically refers to subjective, instead of goal, issues. the amount additionally represents one of many first makes an attempt to assemble money owed of TA marking (in a variety of languages) which are explicitly set in the framework of Cognitive Grammar. eventually, this quantity goals to give a contribution to constructing an understanding that modal that means parts are without delay suitable to the research of the grammar of time.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality
Some nonfactual t-worlds can be characterized in terms of a modal concept that has been neglected in the literature on modality, viz. the idea that the tworld in question is envisaged by the speaker but not yet factual at the time t to which the world in question is anchored. This kind of modal world, which we call ‘not-yet-factual at t’, is evoked by any expression that has posteriority as part of its meaning. The clearest cases are those in which the reference is exclusively to a future world.
H. A situation represented as actualizing in a nonfactual world is automatically nonfactual in the factual world. Thus, the situation referred to by If only John was ill! is represented as actualizing in the counterfactual world created by if only, and hence as having the factuality value [+counterfactual] (rather than [+factual]) in the factual world. Similarly, John is perhaps ill refers to a theoretical S-world (created by perhaps) in which the situation of John being ill actualizes. ) ‘Possibly factual’ is a kind of nonfactuality.
F. Whether a sentence is positive or negative is irrelevant to the question whether the actualization of the situation is factual or not in a given t-world, or to the question whether the sentence (=tensed proposition) is true or not of that t-world. Thus both London lies on the Thames and London does not lie on the Rhine represent the (positive or negative) situation referred to as actualizing in the factual world, and both sentences are true of the factual world. It follows that we must distinguish between ‘negative sentences’ and ‘counterfactual sentences’, as well as between ‘negative situations’ and ‘counterfactual situations’.