By Ivette Perfecto
Based on rules of the conservation and optimization of biodiversity and of fairness and sustainability, this publication specializes in the ecology of the espresso agroecosystem as a version for a sustainable agricultural ecosystem. It attracts at the authors' personal study performed over the last twenty years in addition to incorporating the substantial literature that has been generated on espresso agroecosystems from round the world.
The booklet makes use of an integrated approach that weaves jointly a variety of strains of analysis to appreciate the ecology of a truly different tropical agroforestry method. Key recommendations explored contain biodiversity styles, metapopulation dynamics and ecological networks. those are ready in a socioeconomic and political framework which relates them to the realities of farmers' livelihoods.
The authors offer a singular synthesis that may generate new knowing and will be utilized to different examples of sustainable agriculture and foodstuff production. This synthesis additionally explains the environment providers supplied by way of the process, together with the commercial, reasonable trade and political facets surrounding this all-important worldwide commodity.
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Extra info for Coffee Agroecology: A New Approach to Understanding Agricultural Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services and Sustainable Development
On the other hand, in a very intensified landscape, where most natural habitats have been destroyed, traditional shaded plantations could be important refuges for biodiversity. These landscape-level factors will be discussed more in depth in Chapter 3. The question that naturally emerges from the observed pattern of biodiversity loss with coffee intensification is the cause of the pattern. Unfortunately, it is a question too infrequently pursued in agroecology, but fundamental for the sustainable management of agroecosystems.
Nevertheless, the trend since the 1950s has been to move from diverse farming systems to intensive monocultures and homogeneous agricultural landscapes with a concomitant loss of both planned and associated biodiversity. So the question about biodiversity and agriculture, from the point of view of biodiversity loss, is not whether agriculture does or does not have an impact on biodiversity but rather what effect different styles of agriculture have. Specifically, how is extant biodiversity modified as a function of agricultural intensification?
The farm itself is a biodiverse place, with typically three or four main crops grown along with fruit trees, bananas and other diverse species of plants. However, more importantly, those farms also harbor what is referred to as associated biodiversity – that is, species other than what a farmer intentionally introduced, such as birds, epiphytes, ants, bees, spiders, fungi, amphibians and so forth. This kind of small-scale diverse farm can harbor large numbers of such species. ”19 This simple statement summarizes much of the state of modern agriculture as it has evolved since World War II.