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By Adrian Battye, Ian Roberts

The Principles-and-Parameters method of linguistic conception has prompted an immense volume of labor in comparative syntax during the last decade or so. A average end result of the expansion in synchronic comparative paintings has been a renewed curiosity in questions of diachronic syntax, and this assortment testifies to that development. those papers specialise in questions of clause constitution that have turn into a principal topic of theoretical paintings because the pioneering paintings within the past due Nineteen Eighties via Chomsky, Pollock, and others. The languages studied by means of a global roster of individuals comprise the entire significant Romance and Germanic languages. This quantity is of crucial significance for a person operating in theoretical, comparative, or old syntax.

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The main consequence of the shift in the position of the finiteness operator for English has been the growth of do-support and Infl-lowering while for French (at least for Middle French) it is to be witnessed in a change in the distribution of null subjects. " The authors consider that two different kinds of abstract structures can give rise to verb second: structures involving movement of the verb to I and subsequent movement of V+I to C, and structures which involve the movement of V to I. Depending on whether the verb-second language makes use of the first or the second strategy, it is classified as a "Complementizer Verb-Second" (CV2) or an "Inflectional Verb-Second" (IV2) language.

Since the category is utterance-initial and is not necessarily the complement of an adjacent verb, it cannot be treated as a complement of some head and must therefore be a specifier, since these are the only two positions in which a phrasal category may occur in D-structure; this assumes the familiar strong form of X-bar theory which claims that a head 38 THE DIACHRONY OF VERB SECOND X projects to a X' which may also contain a complement, and the X' projects to a XP which may also contain a Specifier.

Principles of UG force heads to move locally and therefore preclude movement of an uninflected (infinitive) verb directly to C. The inflected verb (V+I) cannot move to C if C is already filled, for example, by a complementizer in an embedded clause. This yields straightforwardly what have been taken to be core features of the verb-second phenomenon, and this analysis will provide a vocabulary with which we can discuss some interesting issues. In (2) I provide some simple examples of verb-second structures in Dutch.

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