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By Brown T.L., LeMay Jr H.E., Bursten B.E.

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To everyone’s complete surprise, a small amount of scattering at large angles was observed. Some particles were even reflected back in the direction from which they had come. The explanation for these results was not immediately obvious, but they were clearly inconsistent with Thomson’s “plum-pudding” model. By 1911 Rutherford was able to explain these observations; he postulated that most of the mass of the atom and all of its positive charge reside in a very small, extremely dense region, which he called the nucleus.

Which of these characteristics are physical properties, and which are chemical properties? 12 Read the following description of the element zinc, and CQ indicate which are physical properties and which are chemical properties. Zinc is a silver–gray-colored metal that melts at 420°C. When zinc granules are added to dilute sulfuric acid, hydrogen is given off and the metal dissolves. 13 g> cm3 at 25°C. It reacts slowly with oxygen gas at elevated temperatures to form zinc oxide, ZnO. 13 Label each of the following as either a physical process or CQ a chemical process: (a) corrosion of aluminum metal; (b) melting of ice; (c) pulverizing an aspirin; (d) digesting a candy bar; (e) explosion of nitroglycerin.

He further concluded that g radiation is high-energy radiation similar to X rays; it does not consist of particles and carries no charge. We will discuss radioactivity in greater detail in Chapter 21. 6 Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867–1934). When M. Curie presented her doctoral thesis, it was described as the greatest single contribution of any doctoral thesis in the history of science. Among other things, two new elements, polonium and radium, had been discovered. In 1903 Henri Becquerel, M. Curie, and her husband, Pierre, were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in physics.

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