By Roger Owen, Sue King
This publication is aimed toward scholars taking the GCSE Double technological know-how award and at lecturers who will locate it precious as a convenient reference and planner. the 1st 3 sections of the e-book contain a precis of 'Materials and their houses' for key level three of the.
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6. How many electrons are there in the outer energy levels of: (a) rubidium (b) strontium (c) bromine (d) iodine (e) krypton (f) barium (g) xenon (h) caesium? 28 IONS AND BONDING Outer electrons In order to react atoms must form chemical bonds to other atoms. Electrons in the outer energy level (outer shell) are used to form bonds. 1 Group 1 a reactive metal Fluorine • Fluorine and sodium form compounds with other elements. • Atoms of fluorine and sodium are able to form chemical bonds to other atoms.
M+ – M+ M+ – M+ M+ M+– M+ – – M+ – – M+ + – M+ – – M+ – M+– Metal atoms/ions are held in a regular pattern but can slide over each other, giving metals flexibility. bulb lights up – ‘Free’ outer electrons can carry current. Outer electrons move between atoms/ions and form metallic bonds. conductor + – + – + +– +– –+– + – + – + +– –+ + – + – + – +– – - electrons move and carry charge Ionic compounds conduct electricity when melted or dissolved in water because the ions are free to move. • Copper chloride is an ionic compound containing Cu2+ and Cl– ions.
Copper chloride will conduct electricity if dissolved in water because the ions are free to move. • Two carbon rods called electrodes are dipped into the solution to complete the circuit. • The electric current causes – + – + chemical reactions to occur at the The ions are electrodes. • The electric discharged at current has split the electrodes copper chloride into copper and electrodes chlorine. • This process is solution fills space called copper between electrodes and electrolysis, and chloride completes the circuit the copper solution chloride is called an electrolyte.