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By Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey, Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski (eds)

The Russia-Chechen wars have had an awfully damaging effect at the groups and at the trajectories of private lives within the North Caucasus Republic of Chechnya. This booklet provides in-depth research of the Chechen conflicts and their results on Chechen society. It discusses the character of the violence, examines the dramatic adjustments that have taken position in society, within the economic system and in faith, and surveys present advancements, together with how the clash is being remembered and the way Chechnya is reconstructed and ruled.

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This exercise demonstrates the importance of the orientation of the slice through the fold for governing the fold shape one observes. Fig. 27 The ‘down-plunge’ method of viewing a geological map allows the true shape of a fold structure to be seen. A Map Fig. 26 Classroom experiment to illustrate the importance of the section effect on a fold’s appearance. 14 The profile of a fold The fold profile is the shape of a fold seen on a section plane which is at right angles to the hinge line. The fold profile or true fold profile is important since only this two-dimensional view of the fold gives a true impression of its tightness, curvature, asymmetry, etc.

26 Classroom experiment to illustrate the importance of the section effect on a fold’s appearance. 14 The profile of a fold The fold profile is the shape of a fold seen on a section plane which is at right angles to the hinge line. The fold profile or true fold profile is important since only this two-dimensional view of the fold gives a true impression of its tightness, curvature, asymmetry, etc. It corresponds to our view of the fold as we look down the fold hinge line. 15 Horizontal sections through folds Folds displayed on a map often present us with a more or less horizontal section through a fold.

Fold-like sinuosities of geological contacts in a part of a map where the terrain consists of a uniform slope must be the expression of folding. WORKED EXAMPLE The map in Fig. 33 shows the outcrop of a thin shale bed (white). The highly curved outcrop pattern shows four strongly curved parts (A, B, C and D). Explain the reason for these fold-like shapes. The bends at A and C occur on a ridge defined by a V-shaped arrangement of topographic contours. These curves are therefore due to the terrain effect and are not an expression of folding.

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