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By Jinghai Li

Multi-scale research and simulation of chemical processing and reactions have bought exceptional consciousness in recent times; in spite of the fact that, dimension expertise excited by multi-scale buildings, rather on meso-scale phenomena, has now not been sufficiently addressed.  This quantity of Advances in Chemical Engineering specializes in the "Characterization of circulate, debris and Interfaces" to alert the chemical engineering group to this tough factor featuring six meso-scale size applied sciences.

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1991; Murhammer and Goochee, 1990), but it is now well-established that the predominant damaging mechanism in suspension cultures is bubble disengagement (Papoutsakis, 1991). To predict the breakage of animal cells in bioreactors or other processing equipment, it is necessary to know the intrinsic mechanical properties of the cells and the hydrodynamics of the process of interest. Intrinsic mechanical properties are independent of the method of measurement, and can be found by compression testing combined with appropriate mathematical modelling.

2 m3/h. 6 m3/h. Small differences between the estimated liquid flow rate and the actual liquid flow rate represent a large de value. 6%. Although the average value increases, the standard deviation value decreases by 42%. This method for locating the position of the gas–liquid interface can be applied in parametric studies; the gas–liquid interface is an important parameter for predicting the behavior of these types of two-phase flows. Accurate gas–liquid interface detection may help improve existing twophase flow models; this may lead to the development of more reliable and efficient equipment for handling two-phase flow.

Phys. Lett. 78, 1155–1157 (2001). Satomura, S. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 29, 1181–1185 (1957). Shemer, L. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 24, 334–344 (2003). , and Mori, M. Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 26, 221–227 (2002). , and Barnea, D. Chem. Eng. Sci. 45, 1199–1206 (1990). Takeda, Y. Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 7, 313–318 (1986). , ‘‘Measurement in Fluid Mechanics’’. Cambridge University Press, New York (2005). , and Aritomi, M. Flow Meas. Inst. 17, 207–224 (2006). Wild, J. , and Reid, J. M. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 25, 270–280 (1953).

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