By Bernard V. Perbal (Editor), Masaharu Takigawa (Editor)
CCN Protein: a brand new kin of mobile progress and Differentiation Regulators offers the latest growth within the box of CCN proteins, a brand new kinfolk of secretory signaling molecules which are fascinated about numerous primary organic development. those proteins proportion a different multimodular association and current a partial id with 4 households of regulatory proteins controling progress and improvement. The booklet covers the jobs of CCN proteins within the keep watch over of phone proliferation and differentiation in the course of basic improvement, wound fix, chondrogenesis and bone improvement, angiogenesis, tissue regeneration, fibrosis, renal illnesses and melanoma improvement.
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Extra info for CCN Proteins: A New Family of Cell Growth and Differentiation Regulators
Depending on the type of cell with which it interacts, this factor promotes chemotaxis, migration, adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and/or extracellular matrix formation. Because of the very high level of gene expression of CCN2 in hypertrophic chondrocytes in the physiological state, a major physiological role for this factor has been suggested to be the promotion of endochondral ossiﬁcation. However, recent observations of its gene expression during embryonic development and wound healing suggest the involvement of this factor in growth and regeneration of various types of tissues including those of the skeletal and vascular systems.
These ﬁndings agree with the results showing that its in vivo expression was predominant in hypertrophic chondrocytes in growth plate cartilage, suggesting an autocrine/paracrine action of CCN2. , 2000). , 2000). It also increased the proteoglycan synthesis and gene expressions of aggrecan and collagen type II, typical markers of chondrocyte maturation, in both types of cells in conﬂuent cultures in which they were maturing. , 2000). , 2000). , 2003) (Fig. 2). , 2002). Also, RAC cells treated with rCCN2 (20–50 ng/mL) showed increased synthesis of DNA and proteoglycans.
Nascent proteins may be sequestered by certain molecules after translation, while extracellular proteins can be taken up by endocytosis. In the case of CCN2, both pathways are suggested to be used. , 2001a). , 2002) and the functional property of LRP-1 as a endocytotic key molecule are particular of interest. The cell biological effects caused by intracellular CCN2 were also described previously. , 2001) (Fig. 4). 5. Processing of CCN2 and the role of its subfragments Post-translational processing is one of the common regulatory systems for proteins with critical functions.