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By Barry J. Blake

Case is an obtainable advent for college students of linguistics to the methods family among phrases in sentences are marked in languages. Case is key to the complete process of language. considered one of its finest positive aspects is the recurrence of it appears idiosyncratic styles and units in differently unrelated languages. This e-book choices out those routine techniques and explores their value. It presents the history opposed to which the case-marking of specific languages could be most sensible understood. during this revised 2001 variation, Blake refines and expands on his discussions of crucial techniques within the research of case, considering fresh advancements within the box. It accommodates major additions to the information and incorporates a completely revised part on summary case within the Chomskyan paradigm.

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Theories of how cases are to be distinguished and of how their meanings and functions are to be described are discussed in the remainder of this chapter. 1, cases are traditionally recognised on the basis of a distinction of case form for any one group of nouns. There is no requirement that the distinction be made for all classes of noun. 2), as in other Indo-European case languages, the nominative and accusative have distinct case forms for masculine and feminine nouns, but there is neutralisation, or syncretism as it is often called, of the distinction with neuter nouns.

Another type of head marking in noun phrases indicates the presence of a dependent. In Semitic languages a noun with a noun dependent is in what is called the construct state. In Arabic, for instance, ‘the book of the king’ is kit¯abu lmaliki, where kit¯abu ‘book’ is in the construct state (a nominative form lacking both the definite article and the -n that marks indefiniteness) and lmaliki is genitive (Kaye `¯ m´an 1987: 678). In Persian a noun with dependent is suffixed with -e: ketab-e ‘book of me, my book’ (Windfuhr 1987: 532).

1), but there is no reason to recognise two cases. Typically there is a different distribution of case markers with respect to these two functions since the instrumental does not normally occur with pronouns. Instrumentals are virtually always inanimate and inanimates tend not to be represented by pronouns in Australian languages. In a few languages, however, the instrumental expresses the indirect cause (‘because of ’) or aversive function (‘what is to be avoided’). This is the situation in Margany, for instance (Breen 1981: 303–8).

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