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By A. S. Cole, J. E. Eastoe

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Hyperventilation) will lower the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and raise the blood pH, while decreased ventilation raises the partial pressure, making the blood more acid (metabolic acidosis). Normally the respiratory centre controls the rate of ventilation to keep the partial pressure of carbon dioxide close to the normal value of 40 mmHg. Experiments in which a 0 027 M solution of sodium bicarbonate (to simulate the isolated bicarbonate buffer system of plasma) was brought to equilibrium with air having various partial pressures of carbon dioxide showed that doubling the partial pressure reduced the pH by 0-3 unit, whereas halving it increased the pH by the same amount.

The modified solution is a very good buffer at this pH. The concentrations of both undissociated acid and acetate ions are high and equal to 1 and the hydrogen ion concentration is much lower at 1-75 x 10"5. Addition of a small number of hydroxyl ions removes an equal number of hydrogen ions as water. The original concentration of hydrogen ions is then restored by the dissociation of more acetic acid, the equilibrium of Equation (3-7) moving to the right. There is a slight increase in acetate concentration and a slight decrease in acetic acid concentration but since both concentrations are high, their ratio remains nearly constant and the hydrogen ion concentration (given by Equation (3-8)) is also practically constant.

They may contain anything from one hundred to several thousand amino acid units joined in a specific genetically determined order and each protein has unique chemical and biological properties. The amino acids are amphoteric compounds and, as the name suggests, contain both a potentially basic amino (-NH 2 ) group and a potentially acidic carboxyl (-COOH) group. All the amino acids found in proteins are α-amino acids, the -NH 2 and -COOH groups both being attached to the α-carbon atom. e. one that has four different groups attached to it and exist in stereoisomeric forms.

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