By Jerry M. Neff
Huge volumes of produced water are generated and discharged to the coastal and ocean waters world wide from offshore oil and fuel construction amenities. there's quandary that the chemical compounds within the produced water could damage marine ecosystems. This e-book summarizes the bioavailability and marine ecotoxicology of steel and natural contaminants that can take place in oil good produced water at concentrations considerably better than these in ambient seawater. The contaminants of outrage comprise arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, radium isotopes, zinc, monocyclic fragrant hydrocarbons, polycyclic fragrant hydrocarbons, phenols, and bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate.The first a part of the booklet is a close dialogue of the chemical composition of produced water from offshore oil wells around the globe and its fates following discharge to the sea. the remainder chapters of the ebook summarize the present clinical literature at the resources and distributions within the ocean of every of the contaminants of shock and their bioaccumulation and toxicity to marine organisms.This booklet might be of price to: environmental scientists within the oil and gasoline undefined; marine toxicologists and ecological possibility assessors in academia, govt, and undefined; govt regulatory enterprises inquisitive about marine environmental protection.The publication advances the idea that bioavailability overview has to be incorporated in all ecological threat tests and different environmental checks of chemical contaminants in marine and freshwater ecosystems.
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Extra info for Bioaccumulation in marine organisms: effect of contaminants from oil well produced water
The organic acids biodegrade rapidly in the ambient seawater and so probably are not important sources of toxicity of produced water in the ambient environment. 3 Toxicity of Produced Water Additives Several chemical additives may be added to the production stream or to the oil-water treatment system to solve problems encountered in the production stream, to aid in fossil fuel production, or to enhance separation of produced water from fossil fuels. Although many of these chemicals are oil soluble and remain with the oil following oilwater separation, some are sufficiently water-soluble that a fraction not consumed in oil and water treatment remains with the produced water and is discharged with it to the ocean.
Zinc is one of the metals most frequently found at substantially higher concentrations (more than 1,000-fold) in produced water than in seawater. , 1996). Production chemicals (additives) also contributed to the toxicity of these produced waters. For example, Karman et al. (1996) predicted that organic acids contributed 46 percent and production chemicals contributed 25 percent of the acute toxicity of a 1000-fold dilution of produced water from the Statt]ord and Gullfaks Fields. Total petroleum hydrocarbons, phenols, and metals contributed an additional 25, 3, and 1 percent, respectively, to the toxicity of the dilute produced water.
Often, the fraction of total metal in sediment that is potentially bioavailable increases with anthropogenic contamination. , 1999). , 1997). , 1987). The metalpolysulfide complexes may be soluble. As the sulfide concentration in sediments increases, the concentration of the metals in apparent solution in sediment pore water increases. These soluble metal sulfide complexes may diffuse upward to less reduced sediment layers where they may precipitate as sulfides or be oxidized to other metal salts or complexes, some of which are soluble and bioavailable.