By Anna Tummers, Koenraad Jonckheere
The query even if seventeenthcentury painters reminiscent of Rembrandt and Rubens created the work that have been later bought lower than their names, has triggered many a heated debate. a lot continues to be unknown in regards to the ways that work have been produced, assessed, priced, and advertised. for instance, did modern connoisseurs anticipate masters corresponding to Rembrandt to color their works completely by means of their very own hand? Who used to be credited being able to determine work? How did a painting’s cost relate to its caliber? and the way did connoisseurship switch because the artwork marketplace turned more and more advanced? The individuals to this crucial quantity hint the evolution of connoisseurship within the booming paintings marketplace of the 17th- and eighteenth centuries. between them are the well known Golden Age students Eric Jan Sluijter, Hans Van Miegroet and Neil De Marchi. it's not to be ignored via somebody with an curiosity within the previous Masters and the early glossy artwork industry.
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Additional info for Art Market and Connoisseurship: A Closer Look at Paintings by Rembrandt, Rubens and Their Contemporaries (Amsterdam Studies in the Dutch Golden Age)
Two decennia earlier, Karel van Mander was even more explicit. In his view, a painter’s characteristic ‘spirit’ (gheest) could best be recognised in the depiction of ‘leaves, hair, air and draperies’ (bladen, hayr, locht, en laken). He added that, out of these elements, the depiction of draperies was the most dependent on the painter’s spirit – presumably because the painter here enjoyed the greatest freedom of invention and execution, since draperies can be depicted in a sheer endless variety of shapes, textures and colours.
Indd 39 07-10-2008 16:33:57 40 ANNA TU M M E R S some originals may have been purely autograph. However, before discussing the questions of how common it may have been for painters to create purely autograph works and if connoisseurs and art theorists had a particular preference for these, I will ﬁrst look more closely at the distinction made between masterpieces and works by pupils. Master, pupil or ‘retouched’ By far most attributions in seventeenth-century inventories concern master painters, although occasionally, especially in inventories belonging to artists and dealers, a picture is identiﬁed as a work by a pupil (discipel or ‘leerling’).
An imaginary dialogue written in 1677 by the Parisian writer and collector Roger de Piles, suggests that some of these early experts may have been quite sophisticated in their judgements. 4 Yet primary sources addressing these issues are scant. 6 Interestingly, the available sources seem rather ambivalent. On the one hand, surviving guild statutes indicate that it was common practice for master painters to sell works produced in collaboration with their studio assistants under their own name, as we will see.