Download Armenian Van Vaspurakan (UCLA Armenian History and Culture by Richard G. Hovannisian PDF

By Richard G. Hovannisian

The UCLA convention sequence «Historic Armenian towns and Provinces» has been equipped to discover the ancient, political, cultural, non secular, social, and financial legacy of a humans rooted at the Armenian Plateau for 3 millennia. Armenian Van/Vaspurakan is the 1st of the convention lawsuits to be released, in view of the truth that the world round Lake Van is the cradle of Armenian civilization.

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129 In Smyrna on 8 July, spurred by a fanatical customs official called Ibrahim Aga, Muslims killed thousands of Greeks and the Dutch dragoman. 130 Like the Venetians in 1694, however, and for the same reason, the Russian fleet in 1770 abstained from attacking Smyrna, to save Christian lives. In this Asian city, Europe could be a political reality. 132 From being a haven of commerce, Smyrna had become a powder keg. In June 1772 and again for five months from October 1773 to February 1774 Russian ships seized Beirut – the first mainland Levantine port to be occupied by a foreign power since the crusades.

If they could, Franks and local Christians withdrew to the country, or shut themselves in their houses for periods of months at a time known as ‘the closure’. They obtained provisions by letting down baskets on string, or from foreign ships through the galleries at the back of their houses, without anyone touching land. 115 A relic of these plague months are the massive walls, designed to keep out infection, still surrounding the gardens of Bornova. Earthquakes shook the city in 1688 and 1788; the second may have claimed 15,000 lives.

Ottoman forces no longer showed the skill and valour which had helped them to defeat Russia in 1711,Venice in 1715 and the Habsburg monarchy in 1739. With Russian help, a rising in the Peloponnese occurred during which cruelties were perpetrated on both sides. 127 Russia controlled the eastern Mediteranean. Twenty-four Russian ships burnt the Ottoman fleet at Çeşme, fifty miles from Smyrna, on 7 July 1770. 129 In Smyrna on 8 July, spurred by a fanatical customs official called Ibrahim Aga, Muslims killed thousands of Greeks and the Dutch dragoman.

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