Download Armenia: A Year in Erzeroom and on the Frontiers of Russia, by Robert Curzon PDF

By Robert Curzon

Initially published in 1854, this books is an soaking up account of Ottoman provincial lifestyles, ahead of the ultimate death of the Ottoman country. Written by way of a pupil, statesman, and old-fashioned imperialist, Curzon displays at the harsh uplands of Ottoman Armenia. Humourous all through, he tells us concerning the virtues of tezek, the pitfalls of iciness go back and forth, trout fishing at Tortoum, in addition to kinfolk among neighborhood Armenians, Kurds and Turks. a few of his notions in regards to the background of the zone, even if inaccurate, supply us insights onto ecu perceptions at the moment. Curzon's Armenia: A 12 months in Erzeroom is an exellent creation to the geography, ethnography and politics of this turbulent region.

SPECIAL word: the current reproduction of Armenia: A 12 months in Erzeroom, and the Frontiers of Russia, Turkey, and Persia is from the 1854 booklet of this name by means of Harper & Brothers, big apple.

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129 In Smyrna on 8 July, spurred by a fanatical customs official called Ibrahim Aga, Muslims killed thousands of Greeks and the Dutch dragoman. 130 Like the Venetians in 1694, however, and for the same reason, the Russian fleet in 1770 abstained from attacking Smyrna, to save Christian lives. In this Asian city, Europe could be a political reality. 132 From being a haven of commerce, Smyrna had become a powder keg. In June 1772 and again for five months from October 1773 to February 1774 Russian ships seized Beirut – the first mainland Levantine port to be occupied by a foreign power since the crusades.

If they could, Franks and local Christians withdrew to the country, or shut themselves in their houses for periods of months at a time known as ‘the closure’. They obtained provisions by letting down baskets on string, or from foreign ships through the galleries at the back of their houses, without anyone touching land. 115 A relic of these plague months are the massive walls, designed to keep out infection, still surrounding the gardens of Bornova. Earthquakes shook the city in 1688 and 1788; the second may have claimed 15,000 lives.

Ottoman forces no longer showed the skill and valour which had helped them to defeat Russia in 1711,Venice in 1715 and the Habsburg monarchy in 1739. With Russian help, a rising in the Peloponnese occurred during which cruelties were perpetrated on both sides. 127 Russia controlled the eastern Mediteranean. Twenty-four Russian ships burnt the Ottoman fleet at Çeşme, fifty miles from Smyrna, on 7 July 1770. 129 In Smyrna on 8 July, spurred by a fanatical customs official called Ibrahim Aga, Muslims killed thousands of Greeks and the Dutch dragoman.

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