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By Peter W. Stahl

The lowland American tropics have posed nice demanding situations for archaeologists. operating in awkward terrain, in humid stipulations the place maintenance is hard, smooth students pioneered new equipment that more and more impression archaeological perform the world over. The individuals to this quantity all have huge adventure within the zone. Their essays discover difficulties together with web site discovery, excavation, the maintenance of artifacts, and strategies of research. This publication can be welcomed by means of all archaeologists, ecologists and paleontologists operating within the tropics.

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ZEIDLER quadrats measuring i ha each. Some 40 quadrats were placed in Stratum I, 30 in Stratum II, and 60 in Stratum III, giving a total of 130 quadrats (or 130 ha) of randomly sampled area. 14 percent) in Stratum III. 3 This decision was made at some cost in logistical efficiency, however, since numerous quadrats fell in relatively remote areas, in areas of rough terrain, or both. The resulting constraints on travel time and survey accessibility often hindered efficient and timely execution of quadrat inspection.

It was also 28 JAMES A. 2. Histogram of the 130 sample quadrat returns from three survey strata. expected that if the results differed in the three strata, the results obtained in Stratum II would be considerably lower than those from Strata I and III, where site densities were perceived to be higher. 2 graphically illustrates the binomial quadrat returns from each of the three survey strata. In all three cases, negative quadrat returns outnumber positive returns, but the margins are much smaller than expected on the basis of our previous knowledge of the study area.

Independent samples are then drawn from each stratum, thus maximizing within-stratum homogeneity and reducing the error in estimations based on a single heterogeneous study area. In forested neotropical lowlands such as Amazonia, past researchers have often assumed that little ecosystemic heterogeneity exists. This is typified by the common use of the basic dichotomy between varzea and terra firme environments. However, Moran (1990) has shown that when one is working at finer local scales, considerable heterogeneity does exist, and must be taken into account.

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