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By S. Charles Kendeigh

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Plants, coniferous trees. wet areas covered with trees or shrubs. Marsh: wet areas containing sedges, rushes, cat: tails, and the Inasmuch as animals choose niches in response primarily to the physical structure of the vegetation taxonomic composition, it is helpful in describing biotic communities to show the vegetation structure in as much detail as possible. S1). \ anting lommunities like. cent rule If the primary basis for community recognition based on the life-form of the dominants, which on land is expressed in the physiognomy of the vegetation and in some aquatic habitats on the life form of the predominant animals, then the secondary breakdown of community units must be on the basis of taxonomic units.

Together they make up the biotic community, and the biotic community along with its habitat is termed an ecosystem habitat fact the (Tansley 1935). The ecosystem the best unit for is the study of the circulation of matter and flow of energy between organisms and their environment. Background: The Biotic Community — Structure and Dynamics Comnumities may be distinguished as major or Major cotnmunities are those which, together with their habitats, form more or less complete and self-sustaining units or ecosystems, except for the minor.

This knowledge is desirable for the ecological interpretation of communities, for it helps to explain their species composition and the geologi- groups, and their dispersal cal history of the community The mechanics called speciation, ogy as in it is animals comes However, the clisere usually requires a few thousands of years before changes in the community structure or composition become evident. The progress of an eosere is even slower geosere, slowest of all. The climax is defined as the last stage in the biosere no absolute stability or final permanency should be construed, since it is simultaneously a stage in the clisere, eosere, and geosere.

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