By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer
This is a state-of-the-art record as a result of the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The document summarises learn to this point within the sector of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a selected concentrate on the subsequent components: binder layout and characterisation, sturdiness checking out, commercialisation, standardisation, and offering a ancient context for this rapidly-growing learn field.
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Extra info for Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM TC 224-AAM
There has therefore been a process of very slow adoption of new materials, as one may need to wait up to 20–30 years for the real-world verification which is required, or at least requested, by most design engineers. However, the developing world does not have the same entrenched standards, and is generally more willing to accept an innovative solution to a problem such as the use of alternative binders in concretes, as market demand is projected to markedly exceed the currently available supply in the next several decades.
Potentially suitable industrial solid wastes generated in China include blast-furnace slags, steel slag, phosphorus slag, fly ash, red mud, coal gangue, calcium carbide residue, soda residue, phosphogypsum, and flue gas desulfurisation gypsum, among others. 1 . There is also reported, as of 2009, to be stockpiled about 1,300 million tonnes of accumulated unused fly ash, and 3,600 million tonnes of accumulated unused coal gangue, awaiting further industrially and/or environmentally beneficial treatment and/or reutilisation .
The majority of the silicate sites present in the activating solutions used in AAMs will be deprotonated either once or twice . 5 by the silicate deprotonation equilibria [100, 101], and yet can provide a much higher level of ‘available alkalinity’ when compared to hydroxide solutions at the same pH due to the buffering effect providing a ready source of basic species. Obviously, hydroxide activating solutions will have a higher pH than this prior to mixing with solid aluminosilicates, but the dissolution of a moderate amount of silica from the solid precursor into such a solution will rapidly bring the pH into this region during the reaction process.