By Regula Christiansen-Bolli
The current research offers a close description of Tadaksahak, a Northern Songhay department of the Nilo-Saharan language crew. it really is spoken by means of nearly 30,000 humans, consisting generally of the ethnic crew of the Idaksahak who're residing within the East of Mali in addition to in remoted areas in western Niger. The e-book is split into 4 chapters giving an entire assessment: the 1st brief bankruptcy offers information regarding the historical past of the Idaksahak. within the moment bankruptcy, the phonological beneficial properties of the language are defined, whereas the 3rd bankruptcy is devoted to the outline of the morphology of Tadaksahak. it really is proven that verbal derivation pulls on unrelated Tamasheq for causative, reciprocal and heart in addition to passive. additionally, any verb root that's of Songhay beginning is suppleted while derived and a semantic an identical of Tamasheq beginning takes its position. one other non-Songhay function matters inflection the place the topic pronoun cliticizes to the verb and is usually current even if a noun word holds the topic slot. The nominalization process used will depend on the etymology of the time period, a function paralleled within the formation of adjectives. The final bankruptcy is devoted to the syntax of the language and offers kinds of noun words. moreover, the different sorts of easy clauses are handled in addition to focalization and topicalization in such clauses. query phrases and supplement clauses together with the 2 attainable relativization ideas also are thought of, whereas the final part approximately complicated sentences provides subordinate clauses. within the appendices texts with glosses, lists of verb roots with their suppletions while derived, a wordlist Tadaksahak-English containing Songhay cognates and an index English-Tadaksahak are given.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Tadaksahak: A Berberised Songhay Language (Mali)
1). g. (68) plural morpheme -en noun + PL realization gloss 42 noun + PL realization borá + en huuwá + en tugúdu + en bundú +en hamborí + en biidí +en borén huuwén tugúden bundén hamborén biidén gloss ‘person / people’ ‘milk / kinds of milk’ ‘tree sg/pl’ ‘stick sg/pl’ ‘mortar sg/pl’ ‘bone general sg/pl’ This process of adding the plural morpheme brings about additional changes to the last consonant of the stem. In many, but not all, nouns with a velar /k/ or /g/, the velar is changed to a palatal before the suffix -en (cf.
Variant of the same (< W: akăwăt) Vowel contractions There are several cases of vowel contractions over word or morpheme boundaries. We will illustrate this in the following section in situations with a) verb and pronoun enclitic; b) suffixes on verbs; c) plural morphemes on nouns; d) noun and demonstrative; e) V-initial nouns preceded by V-final words. 34 The overall rule of vowel constractions is as follows: (40) Vowel contraction rule V1# + V2 V2 The outcome of the contraction is a short vowel when V2 is short and a long vowel when V2 is long.
There are some stress patterns that are frequent and new imported vocabulary often follows such established patterns. g. causative S(V)- and derivator t(a)-…-t. We will discuss these stress changes in the morphology part of this work. 1 Stress in disyllabic words In disyllabic words all stress patterns are possible. g. CVC words ahún hold it! agúd moment cijín last night bǝkáw jinn ágli ruminated grass áwsa gall íini óoda color this ána ígi for you deed (2 items) tábsit zálgat rúmsut wánjin áhwar acacia flowers left hand side to desire meat to refuse decoration (kind of) aardvark ádbug áanut áadal stick to make fire wild cat, sp.