By Jiang Li
In A Grammar of Guiqiong, Jiang Li describes the grammar of Guiqiong, a hitherto undocumented language spoken by way of alpine humans in Kangding county, China. Guiqiong has much to supply in its phonology, verbal and nominal morphology, syntax and thesaurus, distinguishing itself from the neighbouring Tibetan, chinese language, Qiangic and Loloish languages. The newly found beneficial properties of Guiqiong contain breathy vs. modal voice, indefinite quantity, ablative, ergative, instrumental, dative and genitive case markers, subject and emphatic markers, the diminutive suffixes, the pronominal and deictic structures, demonstratives and numerals, a wealthy shop of differentiated copular verbs expressing equationality, inchoative, animacy vs. inanimacy, based lifestyles and negation, verbal affixes indicating instructions, current stressful of skilled perceptions, gnomic demanding, perfective vs. imperfective element, modality and evidentiality.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Guìqióng: A Language of Sichuan
Jɐŋ ‘wheat’ and ’mu ‘short’. The high tone of syllables with approximant and nasal initials is thus marked with an apostrophe before the initial phoneme, as is shown in the table. g. dz’ɐnχɐn ‘tobacco’, as is shown in the table. After table 4, the pronunciation of the 60 Guìqióng consonants will be individually described, beginning with the uvular and the glottal. g. χɐ ‘eagle’, ʁɐ ‘yell’ and ʁ’ɐ ‘voimit’. The uvular /χ/ is a voiceless fricative a bit backward than the Mandarin velar /x/ and forward than the glottal /h/.
The alveolar fricative /z/ is followed by the medial level tone in modal voice. zo he, she, it zibuzu get angry zi’nɐ leopard zukhɐ corner zɛzɛ point, tip The breathy voiced /z’/ is pronounced as [z] in the low falling tone. g. ɬə ‘god’, lə ‘the subjective suffix’, thə’lə ‘thin maize pancake’, tə ‘shine’ and thə ‘the prohibitive prefix’. The alveolar lateral fricative /ɬ/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice. g. tsɐŋ ‘lunch’, tshɐŋ ‘body hair’, dzɐŋ ‘sour’ and dz’ɐŋ ‘rain’. The unvoiced and unaspirated alveolar affricate /ts/ is followed by the high level tone in modal voice.
Later publications in Languages of China (2007) strengthened the view of Guìqióng as a member of the Qiangic group. Sòng’s Guìqióng Study (2011) published as one of the Newly-found Languages Series edited by Sūn Hóngkāi focused on the phonetic description and comparison of Guìqióng words with a brief introduction of the Guìqióng syntax. This research aims to provide a description of Guìqióng grammar as it is spoken in Qíanxī and Chǎngmǎ, with the help of informants Yáng Xuéwǔ of 22 CHAPTER 1 Chǎngmǎ Village, Yáng Xiàoyún and Gāo Zhèngxiù of Qíanxī Village.