Download A Functional Grammar of Dholuo by Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland PDF

By Duncan O. Okombo, M. Lionel Bender, Franz Rottland

Dholuo (Luo) belongs to the Western Nilotic sub-branch of the Nilotic department of the japanese Sudanic family members. Of the Nilotic languages in Kenya in simple terms Dholuo, spoken by way of approximately 2 million humans, belongs to the Western Nilotic crew. Languages heavily concerning it are present in Uganda and the Sudan. Following the theoretical tenets of useful Grammar, the current quantity is a research with a two-fold goal: First, it units out to supply a descriptively sufficient account of constituent order in Dholuo; secondly, it investigates the opportunity of delivering such an account with no utilizing transformational principles within the feel of structure-changing operations.

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A clause) include tense, aspect, modality, and negation. We shall briefly look at how some of these operators are realized in Dholuo. 1; TENS‘:-E‘ - Basically, tense is a deictic category. As Heine (l980:23) explains: - Deixis relates linguistic messages to the relevant speech contexts. Since speech contexts aredefined in terms of place, time and participants, there are three deictic dimensions: space, time and person. 32 Dnotuo GRAMMAR. Ignoring the controversies which exist in the definition of tense (which would be material enough for another study), we shall take, as our guiding principle in this discussion, the position of Lyons (1968305) that: The essential characteristic of the category of tense is that it relates the time of the action, event or state of affairs referred to in the smtence to the time of utterance (the time of utterance being 'now').

M and ‘I'll see him soon’ as: (49) macltiegni rel-near . A- biro nene maehiegi I-come to to-see-him rel-near Moreover, a number of the words in (a) - (j) above have synonymous expressions. For instance, nende is often replaced by a long /af, as in: I ‘This seems to argue in favour of the localist hypothesis (Lyons 19772718). g. ‘Now John may come‘ can be expressed in Dholuo either as (5 la) or (5 lb)? {51a) John koro nyalo canfmay biro some (filb) John sani nyalo biro Sometimes, sani and I-toro reinforce each other as in ($2), which has the same sense as (51a) or (Slb).

Where ne indicates that the (immediately) following participant has the role of Receiver (Recipient). i Since ne is formally indistinguishable in its various contexts, we tell a Beneficiary from a Receiver only by the state of affairs designated by the verbal predicator in question (taking into account the meaning of the verb in a particular context). - The propositions discussed above are mostly function words. In addition to them there are a number of content words which serve as prepositions of greater specificity.

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