By Richard H. Groshong
Geological buildings are 3 dimensional, but tend to be represented through, and - terpreted from, outcrop maps and constitution contour maps, either one of that are curved two-dimensional surfaces. Maps plus serial sections, known as 2½-D, supply a better method of 3 dimensionality. machine know-how now permits geological interpretations to be constructed from the start in an absolutely 3 dim- sional setting. totally 3D geological versions permit much better interpre- tions and interpretations which are a lot more uncomplicated to percentage with different geologists and with most people. This publication offers an outline of innovations for developing structural interpretations in 2-D, 2½-D and 3-D environments; for interpolating - tween and extrapolating past the keep watch over issues; and for validating the ultimate int- pretation. The underlying philosophy is that constructions are three-d strong our bodies and that facts from through the constitution, no matter if in 2-D or 3-D structure, could be built-in into an internally constant 3D interpretation. it truly is assumed that the majority clients of this publication will do their paintings on a working laptop or computer. C- sequently, the publication offers quantitative structural equipment and methods which are designed to be used with spreadsheets, mapping software program, and 3-dimensional c- puter-graphics courses. The booklet can also be meant to supply the history for figuring out what interpretive software program, for instance, a working laptop or computer contouring p- gram, does instantly. so much suggestions are awarded in either a standard layout acceptable for paper, pencil, and a pocket calculator, and in quantitative structure to be used with spreadsheets and computer-graphics or computer-aided-design programs.
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Extra resources for 3-D Structural Geology: A Practical Guide to Quantitative Surface and Subsurface Map Interpretation
Arrows show directions of the boundary displacements Fig. 26. Effect of mechanical stratigraphy on drape folds. The lowest unit is the forcing member 17 18 Chapter 1 · Elements of Map-Scale Structure Fig. 27. Strain and cleavage patterns in transverse contraction folds produced by differential vertical displacement. a Strain distribution above a model salt dome (after Dixon 1975). b Cleavage or stylolites parallel to bedding. Arrows show directions of the boundary displacements Fig. 28. Veins due to outer-arc bending stresses blocks or in the steep limb of the drape fold over the fault zone.
General terminology for a surface ((patterned) offset by a fault. Heavy lines are hangingwall and footwall cutoff lines Fig. 30. Fault slip is the displacement of points (open circles) that were originally in contact across the fault. Here the correlated points represent the intersection line of a dike and a bed surface at the fault plane across a fault. It may be difficult to distinguish between a shear zone and a fault zone on the basis of observations at the map scale, and so here the term fault will be understood to include both faults and shear zones.
Mislocation of seismic reflection points caused by dip of the reflector. a Ray path end points in vertical cross section. b Structure contours on a seismic reflector, depths subsea in kilofeet, showing actual and interpreted locations of the reflecting points on a seismic line. (After Oliveros 1989) to the surface beyond the outer limit of the recording array and so are not represented on the seismic profile. The structural interpretation of seismic reflection data requires the conversion of the travel times to depth.